The core of the more than four million units large NLL collections is the national collection, which consists of Latvian and foreign editions on Latvia and Latvians, works by Latvian authors. The main function of the NLL is collecting, preserving and ensuring the accessibility of these work, which stands as a priority in the development of the collection.
The thematic profile of the NLL collection is humanities and social sciences. The collected editions in foreign languages cover all branches of science, however, with varying intensity, with due consideration of the specialization of other major Latvian research libraries. (Basic principles of NLL collection development)
The most recent, topical and most demanded branch literature is found at:
- Baltic Research Centre for East Asian Studies library (AsiaRes) Collection,
- Reference and Information Centre Collection,
- Children's Literature Collection,
- Library Science Collection,
- Economy and Law Collection,
- Humanities and Social Sciences Collection,
- Science and Technology Collection.
The diversity and richness of the Library collection are reflected in its special collections:
- Cartographic Materials,
- Lettonica and Baltic,
- Rare Books and Manuscripts,
- Sheet Music and Music Literature,
- Graphic Documents,
- Audiovisual Resources,
- Small Printed Items (Ephemera).